Management of high-grade spondylolisthesis.
Management of high-grade spondylolisthesis (HGS) remains challenging and is associated with significant controversies. The best surgical procedure remains debatable. Although the need for instrumentation is generally agreed upon, significant controversies still surround the role of reduction and anterior column support in the surgical management of HGS. Complications with operative management of HGS can be significant and often dictate the selection of surgical approach. This review highlights the pathophysiology, classification, clinical presentation, and management controversies of HGS, in light of recent advances in our understanding of the importance of sagittal spinopelvic alignment and technologic advancements.
Kasliwal, MK; Smith, JS; Kanter, A; Chen, C-J; Mummaneni, PV; Hart, RA; Shaffrey, CI
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