Clinical and radiographic evaluation of the adult spinal deformity patient.
Among the prevalent forms of adult spinal deformity are residual adolescent idiopathic and degenerative scoliosis, kyphotic deformity, and spondylolisthesis. Clinical evaluation should include a thorough history, discussion of concerns, and a review of comorbidities. Physical examination should include assessment of the deformity and a neurologic examination. Imaging studies should include full-length standing posteroanterior and lateral spine radiographs, and measurement of pelvic parameters. Advanced imaging studies are frequently indicated to assess for neurologic compromise and for surgical planning. This article focuses on clinical and radiographic evaluation of spinal deformity in the adult population, particularly scoliosis and kyphotic deformities.
Smith, JS; Shaffrey, CI; Fu, K-MG; Scheer, JK; Bess, S; Lafage, V; Schwab, F; Ames, CP
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