Type II odontoid fractures in the elderly: early failure of nonsurgical treatment.
The optimum treatment of Type II odontoid fractures in the geriatric population remains controversial. Coexisting medical conditions encountered in the elderly patient often increase operative risk and make cervical immobilization difficult to tolerate. Previous studies have shown increased morbidity and mortality and decreased fusion rates for Type II odontoid fractures treated with cervical orthoses in the geriatric population, whereas low morbidity and mortality rates with operative management have recently been documented. To investigate the role of surgical and nonsurgical treatment, a retrospective analysis was performed of patients with Type II odontoid fractures who were at least 65 years old and were consecutively admitted to a single medical center from 1994 to 1998. Twenty patients met inclusion criteria. In 12 patients nonsurgical management with a cervical orthosis was attempted. The nonsurgical management failed early in six patients, with one associated death. Eleven patients were treated surgically with either anterior odontoid screw fixation or posterior C1-2 transarticular screw fixation and modified Gallie fusion. Postoperatively one patient required revision of the C1-2 transarticular screws, and there was one death. In conclusion Type II odontoid fractures in this elderly population were associated with early 10% morbidity and 20% mortality rates. Nonsurgical management of Type II odontoid fractures failed early in six (50%) of 12 patients, whereas surgical treatment failed early in one of 11 (9%) patients. Both the nonsurgical and surgical treatments resulted in approximately 10% morbidity and 10% mortality rates.
Kuntz, C; Mirza, SK; Jarell, AD; Chapman, JR; Shaffrey, CI; Newell, DW
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