Cerebral Blood Flow Velocities and Functional Outcomes in Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.
Outcomes can be challenging to predict in children with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound has become an increasingly useful modality in adult and pediatric TBI by measuring blood flow velocities within the circle of Willis. In children with moderate-to-severe TBI, multiple studies have correlated abnormal TCD measurements and poor outcomes. Additionally, TCD has shown value in assessing adults with mild brain injury. To date, there are no studies that correlate TCD findings and outcomes in children with mild TBI. We hypothesize that altered cerebral blood flow after mild TBI is associated with poor functional outcome using the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, Pediatrics (GOS-E Peds). TCD was performed within 24 h of admission on 60 patients at a tertiary Level 1 children's hospital. A secondary analysis was performed on the subgroup of 28 mild TBI patients. GOS-E Peds was measured at the time of hospital discharge and 4-6 weeks post-discharge. Cerebral blood flow velocities did not show correlation with outcome. At discharge, the right-sided Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.19 (p value = 0.33) and the left-sided was 0.36 (p = 0.06). At follow up the right-sided coefficient was -0.04 (p = 0.84), the left-sided was -0.25 (p = 0.24). Pulsatility index likewise showed no correlation. Right and left-sided correlation at discharge were -0.25 (p = 0.19) and 0.01 (p = 0.96), respectively. At follow up the right side showed 0.004 (p = 0.99), and the left showed 0.18 (p = 0.41). Although our data did not show correlation, it showed that the investigation could feasibly be done in pediatric patients with mild TBI. The study was limited by small sample size and infrequent outcome of interest. Future studies may help define the role of TCD in the large population of mild pediatric TBI patients.
Deines, JJ; Chang, J; Reuter-Rice, K
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