Lactarius subgenus Russularia (Basidiomycota, Russulales): novel Asian species, worldwide phylogeny and evolutionary relationships.
Lactarius subg. Russularia is a large group of milkcaps occurring almost worldwide and dominant in many ecosystems. In this study we focus on new diversity, evolutionary relationships, divergence time, and origin of the subgenus. Six conifer symbionts are described as new to science: Lactarius atrii, L. aurantionitidus, L. dombangensis, L. flavigalactus, L. lachungensis, and L. sikkimensis. Species delimitation is assessed based on the concordance between morphological characteristics and an ITS phylogeny. Infrageneric relationships were studied using a phylogeny constructed from concatenated ITS-rpb2 data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. Results show that species in this subgenus do not cluster together according to their geographic origin. Intercontinental sister relationships between Europe/Asia/North America are common but actual conspecificity is rare. This result suggests that allopatric speciation has played an important role within this subgenus. Only few morphological characteristics tend to be phylogenetically informative, with the most important being presence or absence of true cystidia and the pileipellis structure. Two datasets were generated in order to estimate the age of L. subg. Russularia. The results suggest the origin of L. subg. Russularia to be in the Mid Miocene period.
Wisitrassameewong, K; Looney, BP; Le, HT; De Crop, E; Das, K; Van de Putte, K; Eberhardt, U; Jiayu, G; Stubbe, D; Hyde, KD; Verbeken, A; Nuytinck, J
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