Increased choriocapillaris vessel density in amblyopic children: a case-control study.
PURPOSE: To investigate the choriocapillaris in children with amblyopia, using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). METHODS: Patients with amblyopia and age-matched controls were prospectively imaged using OCT-A. On OCT-A, the choriocapillaris measures 30 μm starting 31 μm posterior to the retinal pigment epithelium. The section of choriocapillaris under superficial retinal vessels was excluded from analysis to avoid shadowing or projection artifacts. The main outcome measure was choriocapillaris vessel density. Secondary outcome measures were foveal macular thickness and parafoveal macular thickness. RESULTS: A total of 20 eyes of 16 patients with amblyopia and 25 eyes of 25 controls were included. Mean age of amblyopic subjects was 7.6 ± 3.6 years; of controls, 9.3 ± 2.2 years (P = 0.10). Mean refractive error of subjects was 4.3 ± 6.2 D; of controls, 0.0 ± 1.6 D (P = 0.004). Mean choriocapillaris vessel density was 74.8 ± 5.8 in the amblyopic group and 71.1 ± 3.6 in the control group, which was significant even after adjusting for age and refractive error (P = 0.012). There was no difference between groups in foveal macular thickness or parafoveal macular thickness; however, outer parafoveal macular thickness (the inner boundary of the inner nuclear layer to the retinal pigment epithelium outer boundary) was significantly greater in amblyopic eyes than in control eyes, even after adjusting for age and refractive error (203 ± 11 μm and 189 ± 12 μm, resp. [P = 0.014]). CONCLUSIONS: In our study cohort, amblyopic eyes were found to have increased choriocapillaris vessel density as well as a greater outer parafoveal macular thickness, which may be due to alterations in outer retinal maturation.
Borrelli, E; Lonngi, M; Balasubramanian, S; Tepelus, TC; Baghdasaryan, E; Pineles, SL; Velez, FG; Sarraf, D; Sadda, SR; Tsui, I
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