Extraocular muscle damage associated with endoscopic sinus surgery: an ophthalmology perspective.
BACKGROUND: Orbital complications associated with endoscopic sinus surgery are well documented. Damage to the medial rectus muscle results in complicated strabismus and disturbing diplopia. The aim of this study was to characterize the types of extraocular muscle injury and the number of muscles involved that may complicate endoscopic sinus surgery and correlate its occurrence to factors in the surgical procedure itself. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of 14 patients with strabismus after endoscopic sinus surgery. Operative notes of the surgical procedure, pathology reports of the intraoperative specimens, postoperative pattern of strabismus, the extraocular muscle involved, and the type of muscle injury characterized by orbital imaging were reviewed in each patient. RESULTS: In our series, not only the medial rectus muscle but also the inferior rectus and the superior oblique muscles were damaged with multiple muscles being involved in one patient. Extraocular muscle injury varied from hematoma, entrapment of muscle in the fractured orbital wall, damage to the oculomotor nerve entry zone, muscle transection, and partial or complete muscle destruction with entrapment in scar tissue. Use of the microdebrider causes extensive irreparable muscle damage. CONCLUSION: Extraocular muscle damage complicating endoscopic sinus surgery can produce therapeutically challenging complicated strabismus.
Thacker, NM; Velez, FG; Demer, JL; Wang, MB; Rosenbaum, AL
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