Postoperative Venous Thromboembolism in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery for IBD: A Common but Rarely Addressed Problem.
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism after abdominal surgery occurs in 2% to 3% of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, no evidence-based guidelines currently exist to guide postdischarge prophylactic anticoagulation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the use of postoperative postdischarge venous thromboembolism chemical prophylaxis, 90-day venous thromboembolism rates, and factors associated with 90-day thromboembolic events in IBD patients following abdominal surgery. DESIGN: This was a retrospective evaluation of an administrative database. DATA SOURCE: Data were obtained from Optum Labs Data Warehouse, a large administrative database containing claims on privately insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees. PATIENTS: Seven thousand seventy-eight patients undergoing surgery for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were rates of postdischarge venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and 90-day rates of postdischarge thromboembolic events. In addition, patient clinical characteristics were identified to determine predictors of postdischarge venous thromboembolism. RESULTS: Postdischarge chemical prophylaxis was given to only 0.6% of patients in the study. Two hundred thirty-five patients (3.3%) developed a postdischarge thromboembolic complication. Postdischarge thromboembolism was more common in patients with ulcerative colitis than with Crohn's disease (5.8% vs 2.3%; p < 0.001). Increased rates of venous thromboembolism were seen in patients undergoing colectomy or proctectomy with simultaneous stoma creation compared with colectomy or proctectomy alone (5.8% vs 2.1%; p < 0.001). The strongest predictors of thromboembolic complications were stoma creation (adjusted OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.34-2.84), J-pouch reconstruction (adjusted OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.65-4.29), preoperative prednisone use (adjusted OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.19-2.08), and longer length of stay (adjusted OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.41-2.52). LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by its retrospective design. CONCLUSIONS: The use of postdischarge venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in this patient sample was infrequent. Development of evidence-based guidelines, particularly for high-risk patients, should be considered to improve the outcomes of IBD patients undergoing abdominal surgery.
Brady, MT; Patts, GJ; Rosen, A; Kasotakis, G; Siracuse, JJ; Sachs, T; Kuhnen, A; Kunitake, H
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