Retroperitoneal and rectus sheath hematomas.
The retroperitoneum is rich in vascular structures and can harbor large hematomas, traumatic or spontaneous. The management of retroperitoneal hematomas depends on the mechanism of injury and whether they are pulsatile/expanding. Rectus sheath hematomas are uncommon abdominal wall hematomas secondary to trauma to the epigastric arteries of the rectus muscle. The common risk factors include anticoagulation, strenuous exercise, coughing, coagulation disorders, and invasive procedures on/through the abdominal wall. The management is largely supportive, with the reversal of anticoagulation and transfusions; angioembolization may be necessary.
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