Complete primary repair of bladder exstrophy: a single institution referral experience.
PURPOSE: The reasons for referral and treatment strategies in patients who underwent complete primary repair of bladder exstrophy elsewhere in the newborn period were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An institutionally approved database identified patients who underwent complete primary repair of exstrophy and were subsequently referred for continued care. RESULTS: A total of 10 females and 55 males were referred for treatment between 1996 and 2010. Six females and 23 males were referred for complications following initial complete primary repair of exstrophy. Female complications included dehiscence (3 patients), prolapse (2) and stricture (1). Male complications included dehiscence (10 patients), prolapse (9), pubic separation (1) and stricture (3). Nine males had posterior urethral loss and 13 had major penile soft tissue injuries. Grade V vesicoureteral reflux and severe hydronephrosis were seen in the 4 patients with urethral strictures. Patients with dehiscence or prolapse underwent successful reclosure with osteotomy. Cases with posterior urethral loss or strictures were repaired with grafts. Four females and 32 males were referred for incontinence. Nine of these patients had poor bladder capacity, of whom 5 underwent bladder augmentation with continent stoma and 4 are awaiting further bladder growth. A total of 27 patients underwent bladder neck repair, with 15 (56%) subsequently continent, 5 (19%) daytime continent with nocturnal incontinence and 7 (26%) continuously incontinent. At initial closure osteotomy had been performed in all patients who were continent following bladder neck reconstruction and in 4 of 5 who were daytime continent. CONCLUSIONS: Complications of complete primary repair of bladder exstrophy can result in undesired upper urinary tract changes and penile soft tissue loss. Surgical reconstruction of such complications and acceptable continence are attainable in select cases.
Schaeffer, AJ; Stec, AA; Purves, JT; Cervellione, RM; Nelson, CP; Gearhart, JP
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