Complications of surgical reconstruction of the exstrophy-epispadias complex.
This review of the complications of all methods of modern treatment of bladder exstrophy emphasizes the complexity of reconstruction of the bladder exstrophy spectrum. The main complications of any method of primary bladder exstrophy closure are complete wound dehiscence, bladder prolapse and urethral outlet obstruction; others include bladder and renal calculi. These complications as well as methods to avoid them are discussed here. Evidence supporting the management strategy is presented where possible.
Hernandez, DJ; Purves, T; Gearhart, JP
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