Prevalence and prognostic impact of non-cardiac co-morbidities in heart failure outpatients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction: a community-based study.
AIM: To assess adverse outcomes attributable to non-cardiac co-morbidities and to compare their effects by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) group [LVEF <50% (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, HFrEF), LVEF ≥50% (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, HFpEF)] in a contemporary, unselected chronic heart failure population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This community-based cohort enrolled patients from October 2009 to December 2013. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and the population attributable fraction (PAF) were used to compare the contribution of 15 non-cardiac co-morbidities to adverse outcome. Overall, 2314 patients (mean age 77 ±10 years, 57% men) were recruited [n = 941 (41%) HFrEF, n = 1373 (59%) HFpEF]. Non-cardiac co-morbidity rates were similarly high, except for obesity and hypertension which were more prevalent in HFpEF. At a median follow-up of 31 (interquartile range 16-41) months, 472 (20%) patients died. Adjusted mortality rates were not significantly different between the HFrEF and HFpEF groups. After adjustment, an increasing number of non-cardiac co-morbidities was associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality [HR 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.26; P < 0.001], all-cause hospitalization (HR 1.17; 95% CI 1.12-1.23; P < 0.001), heart failure hospitalization (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.19-1.38; P < 0.001), non-cardiovascular hospitalization (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.11-1.22; P < 0.001). The co-morbidities contributing to high PAF were: anaemia, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral artery disease. These findings were similar for HFrEF and HFpEF. Interaction analysis yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary community population with chronic heart failure, non-cardiac co-morbidities confer a similar contribution to outcomes in HFrEF and HFpEF. These observations suggest that quality improvement initiatives aimed at optimizing co-morbidities may be similarly effective in HFrEF and HFpEF.
Iorio, A; Senni, M; Barbati, G; Greene, SJ; Poli, S; Zambon, E; Di Nora, C; Cioffi, G; Tarantini, L; Gavazzi, A; Sinagra, G; Di Lenarda, A
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