Apolipoprotein E Exerts a Whole-Brain Protective Property by Promoting M1? Microglia Quiescence After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurologically destructive stroke in which early brain injury (EBI) plays a pivotal role in poor patient outcomes. Expanding upon our previous work, multiple techniques and methods were used in this preclinical study to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) against EBI after SAH in murine apolipoprotein E gene-knockout mice (Apoe-/-, KO) and wild-type mice (WT) on a C57BL/6J background. We reported that Apoe deficiency resulted in a more extensive EBI at 48 h after SAH in mice demonstrated by MRI scanning and immunohistochemical staining and exhibited more extensive white matter injury and neuronal apoptosis than WT mice. These changes were associated with an increase in NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) expression, an important regulator of both oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that NOX2 was abundantly expressed in activated M1 microglia. The JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway, an upstream regulator of NOX2, was increased in WT mice and activated to an even greater extent in Apoe-/- mice; whereas, the JAK2-specific inhibitor, AG490, reduced NOX2 expression, oxidative stress, and inflammation in Apoe-deficient mice. Also, apoE-mimetic peptide COG1410 suppressed the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and significantly reduced M1 microglia activation with subsequent attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation after SAH. Taken together, apoE and apoE-mimetic peptide have whole-brain protective effects that may reduce EBI after SAH via M1 microglial quiescence through the attenuation of the JAK2/STAT3/NOX2 signaling pathway axis.
Pang, J; Peng, J; Matei, N; Yang, P; Kuai, L; Wu, Y; Chen, L; Vitek, MP; Li, F; Sun, X; Zhang, JH; Jiang, Y
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