Physical activity equivalent labeling vs. calorie labeling: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BACKGROUND: Many countries are trying to identify strategies to control obesity. Nutrition labeling is a policy that could lead to healthy food choices by providing information to consumers. Calorie labeling, for example, could lead to consumers choosing lower calorie foods. However, its effectiveness has been limited. Recently, physical activity equivalent labeling (i.e., displaying calories in terms of estimated amount of physical activity to burn calories) has been proposed as an alternative to the calorie-only label. The aim of this review was to identify and evaluate the published literature comparing effects on health behavior between physical activity equivalent labeling and calorie-only labeling. METHOD: We searched the following databases: Pubmed/medline, Scopus, Web of science, Agris, Cochrane library, Google Scholar. We also searched along with reference lists of included articles. Articles that were published between 1 January 2000 and 31 October 2016 were eligible for inclusion provided they reported on studies that examined the effects of both types of labeling and included at least one outcome of interest. Mean and standard deviations of the included results were combined using a fixed-effect model. The difference in calories purchased between people exposed to physical activity labeling and calorie-only labeling was calculated as weighted mean difference by using a fixed-effect model. RESULT: The difference of calories ordered between physical activity label and calorie label groups was not statistically significant (SMD: -0.03; 95% CI: -0.13, 0.07). The difference of calories ordered between physical activity label and calorie label according to real vs unreal (e.g. web-based) condition was 65 Kcal fewer in real-world settings. CONCLUSION: Physical activity calorie equivalent labeling in minutes does not significantly reduce calories ordered compared to calorie-only labeling.
Seyedhamzeh, S; Bagheri, M; Keshtkar, AA; Qorbani, M; Viera, AJ
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