Protection of the endothelial glycocalyx by antithrombin in an endotoxin-induced rat model of sepsis.
INTRODUCTION: Injury and loss of the endothelial glycocalyx occur during the early phase of sepsis. We previously showed that antithrombin has a protective effect on this structure in vitro. Here, we investigated the possible protective effects of antithrombin in an animal model of sepsis. METHODS: Wistar rats were injected with endotoxin, and circulating levels of syndecan-1, hyaluronan, albumin, lactate and other biomarkers were measured in an antithrombin-treated group and an untreated control group (n = 6 in each group). Intravital microscopy was used to observe leukocyte adhesion, microcirculation, and syndecan-1 staining. RESULTS: The circulating levels of syndecan-1 and hyaluronan were significantly reduced in the antithrombin-treated group, compared with the untreated controls. Lactate levels and albumin reduction were significantly attenuated in the antithrombin-treated group. Intravital microscopic observation revealed that both leukocyte adhesion and blood flow were better maintained in the treatment group. The syndecan-1 lining was disrupted after endotoxin treatment, and this derangement was attenuated by treatment with antithrombin. CONCLUSION: Antithrombin effectively maintained microcirculation and vascular integrity by protecting the glycocalyx in a rat sepsis model.
Iba, T; Levy, JH; Hirota, T; Hiki, M; Sato, K; Murakami, T; Nagaoka, I
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