Long-Term Outcomes after Treatment with Clofarabine ± Fludarabine with Once-Daily Intravenous Busulfan as Pretransplant Conditioning Therapy for Advanced Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome.
Pretransplant conditioning regimens critically determine outcomes in the setting of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). The use of nucleoside analogs such as fludarabine (Flu) in combination with i.v. busulfan (Bu) has been shown to be highly effective as a pretransplant conditioning regimen in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Because leukemia relapse remains the leading cause of death after allo-SCT, we studied whether clofarabine (Clo), a nucleoside analog with potent antileukemia activity, can be used to complement Flu. In a preliminary report, we previously showed the safety and efficacy of Clo ± Flu with i.v. Bu in 51 patients with high-risk AML, CML, and MDS. The study has now been completed, and we present long-term follow-up data on the entire 70-patient population, which included 49 (70%), 8 (11%), and 13 (19%) patients with AML, MDS, and CML, respectively. Thirteen patients (19%) were in complete remission, and 41 patients (59%) received matched unrelated donor grafts. Engraftment was achieved in all patients. Sixty-three patients (90%) achieved complete remission. There were no deaths reported at day +30, and the 100-day nonrelapse mortality rate was 4% (n = 3). Thirty-one percent of patients (n = 22) developed grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease, and the median overall survival and progression-free survival times were 2.4 years and .9 years, respectively. Our results confirm the safety and overall and progression-free survival advantage of the arms with higher Clo doses and lower Flu doses, which was most prominent in the AML/MDS group.
Alatrash, G; Thall, PF; Valdez, BC; Fox, PS; Ning, J; Garber, HR; Janbey, S; Worth, LL; Popat, U; Hosing, C; Alousi, AM; Kebriaei, P; Shpall, EJ; Jones, RB; de Lima, M; Rondon, G; Chen, J; Champlin, RE; Andersson, BS
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