Pharmacokinetics and safety of intravesicular cidofovir in allogeneic HSCT recipients.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of cidofovir administered via the intravesicular route to patients with haemorrhagic cystitis following allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT).Patients with gross haematuria and confirmed BK or adenovirus viruria following allo-HSCT were prospectively enrolled in an open-label pharmacokinetic study (ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01816646). Three hours after an oral probenecid dose (2 g), cidofovir (2.5-5 mg/kg in 50-100 mL of normal saline) was given via a transurethral catheter for up to 2 h of dwell time. Serial plasma samples were obtained over 24 h and assayed for cidofovir concentrations using LC-MS/MS. A custom pharmacokinetic model with a time-limited absorption compartment was fitted to the concentration-time profile of each patient. Systemic drug exposure was expressed as AUC0-24, by integrating the best-fit profile with respect to time.Six subjects (mean ± SD age = 38 ± 21 years) with baseline serum creatinine <1.4 mg/dL were enrolled. Mean values for volume of distribution, clearance and elimination half-life were 19.5 L, 5.6 L/h and 2.8 h, respectively. Compared with the reported AUC0-24 for an equivalent intravenous dose, intravesicular instillation of cidofovir resulted in 1%-74% of the corresponding systemic exposure. Owing to primarily lower abdominal pain, only two patients were able to tolerate a 2 h dwell time. One patient developed a >50% increase in serum creatinine within 7 days of administration.Intravesicular administration of cidofovir resulted in highly variable systemic exposures. The safety and efficacy of intravesicular cidofovir should be further evaluated before routine use.
Aitken, SL; Zhou, J; Ghantoji, SS; Kontoyiannis, DP; Jones, RB; Tam, VH; Chemaly, RF
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