Incidence of tumor-cell contamination in leukapheresis products of breast cancer patients mobilized with stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or with G-CSF alone.
We have assessed tumor contamination of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) in 203 high-risk breast cancer patients who were prospectively randomized to mobilization with stem cell factor (SCF) plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) versus G-CSF alone. The patients then received high-dose cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and carmustine (BCNU) with PBPC support. One bone marrow aspirate obtained before treatment, one whole blood specimen obtained before cytokine infusion, and one to five leukapheresis products were tested for the presence of tumor cells by an alkaline phosphatase immunocytochemical technique with a targeted sensitivity of 1.7 tumor cells per 10(6) hematopoietic cells. Tumor cells were detected in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and/or PBPC of 21 patients (10%). In 14 patients, bone marrow specimens were tumor-positive; in seven patients, premobilization whole blood specimens were tumor-positive, and in eight patients, leukapheresis products were tumor-positive. In five patients, repetitive or multiple specimens were tumor-positive, and in three cases, marrow, peripheral blood, and PBPC products were all tumor-positive. Nine of the patients in whom tumor cells were found in marrow or peripheral blood were clinical stage II to III and 12 were clinical stage IV. Nine of the tumor-positive patients were in the SCF + G-CSF arm and 12 were in the G-CSF arm. Tumor cells were detected in leukapheresis products of eight patients: three in the G-CSF + SCF arm and five in the G-CSF arm. We conclude that detectable tumor-cell contamination of bone marrow, peripheral blood, and/or PBPC occurred in approximately 10% of patients in this trial and was observed in stage II to III patients, as well as in stage IV patients. No significant difference could be found in the rate of PBPC tumor-cell contamination between patients who received SCF + G-CSF compared with those who received G-CSF alone. Neither mobilization regimen was found to increase the rate of tumor-cell contamination when control premobilization blood samples were compared with leukapheresis products.
Franklin, WA; Glaspy, J; Pflaumer, SM; Jones, RB; Hami, L; Martinez, C; Murphy, JR; Shpall, EJ
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