High-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic progenitor-cell support as part of combined modality therapy in patients with inflammatory breast cancer
Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous hematopoietic progenitor-cell support (AHPCS) as port of combined modality therapy (CMT) in patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Patients and Methods: From April 1993 to March 1997, 30 patients with IBC were treated at our program. Twenty-three patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) before HDC; 18 patients also received adjuvant chemotherapy following surgery, but before HDC. All patients received HDC with high-dose cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and carmustine (BCNU) with AHPCS. Every patient underwent surgery either before (27 patients) or after (three patients) HDC. Patients received radiotherapy after HDC in addition to tamoxifen if their tumors were estrogen receptor-positive. Results: Thirteen patients experienced grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic noninfectious toxicities. In 12 patients (40%), this represented drug-induced lung injury, which in all cases responded to a 10-week course of corticosteroids. The only treatment- related death was secondary to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Another patient suffered grade 4 CNS toxicity, which was completely reversible. All patients engrafted promptly. Eight patients relapsed, five of whom had a poor pathologic response to NAC. Relapses were local (five patients), local plus systemic (one), or systemic only (two). Median follow-up time from diagnosis and HDC is 23.5 (range, 7 to 49) and 19 (range, 4 to 44) months, respectively. Twenty-one patients (70%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51% to 86%) remain alive and free of disease 4 to 44 months after HDC. Median disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival have not yet been reached. Conclusion: HDC as part of CMT is feasible in patients with IBC. The toxicity of this treatment program is significant, but tolerable. Despite the short follow-up duration, the promising DFS observed in this group of patients warrants randomized studies that include a HDC-containing arm in patients with IBC.
Cagnoni, PJ; Nieto, Y; Shpall, EJ; Bearman, SI; Barón, AE; Ross, M; Matthes, S; Dunbar, SE; Jones, RB
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