Extracellular matrix proteins and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules characterize pancreatic duct fluid exosomes in patients with pancreatic cancer.
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are nanovesicles that have been shown to mediate carcinogenesis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Given the direct communication of pancreatic duct fluid with the tumor and its relative accessibility, we aimed to determine the feasibility of isolating and characterizing exosomes from pancreatic duct fluid. METHODS: Pancreatic duct fluid was collected from 26 patients with PDAC (n = 13), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 8) and other benign pancreatic diseases (n = 5) at resection. Exosomes were isolated by serial ultracentrifugation, proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and their expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Exosomes were isolated from all specimens with a mean concentration of 5.9 ± 1 × 108 particles/mL and most frequent size of 138 ± 9 nm. Among the top 35 proteins that were significantly associated with PDAC, multiple carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were identified. Interestingly, CEACAM 1/5 expression by immunohistochemistry was seen only on tumor epithelia whereas tenascin C positivity was restricted to stroma, suggesting that both tumor and stromal cells contributed to exosomes. CONCLUSION: This is the first study showing that exosome isolation is feasible from pancreatic duct fluid, and that exosomal proteins may be utilized to diagnose patients with PDAC.
Zheng, J; Hernandez, JM; Doussot, A; Bojmar, L; Zambirinis, CP; Costa-Silva, B; van Beek, EJAH; Mark, MT; Molina, H; Askan, G; Basturk, O; Gonen, M; Kingham, TP; Allen, PJ; D'Angelica, MI; DeMatteo, RP; Lyden, D; Jarnagin, WR
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