Cholangiocarcinoma: Correlation between Molecular Profiling and Imaging Phenotypes.
To investigate associations between imaging features of cholangiocarcinoma by visual assessment and texture analysis, which quantifies heterogeneity in tumor enhancement patterns, with molecular profiles based on hypoxia markers.The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study of CT images of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, obtained before surgery. Immunostaining for hypoxia markers (EGFR, VEGF, CD24, P53, MDM2, MRP-1, HIF-1α, CA-IX, and GLUT1) was performed on pre-treatment liver biopsies. Quantitative imaging phenotypes were determined by texture analysis with gray level co-occurrence matrixes. The correlations between quantitative imaging phenotypes, qualitative imaging features (measured by radiographic inspection alone), and expression levels of the hypoxia markers from the 25 tumors were assessed.Twenty-five patients were included with a median age of 62 years (range: 54-84). The median tumor size was 10.2 cm (range: 4-14), 10 (40%) were single tumors, and 90% were moderately differentiated. Positive immunostaining was recorded for VEGF in 67% of the cases, EGFR in 75%, and CD24 in 55%. On multiple linear regression analysis, quantitative imaging phenotypes correlated significantly with EGFR and VEGF expression levels (R2 = 0.4, p<0.05 and R2 = 0.2, p<0.05, respectively), while a trend was demonstrated with CD24 expression (R2 = 0.33, p = 0.1). Three qualitative imaging features correlated with VEGF and CD24 expression (P<0.05), however, none of the qualitative features correlated with the quantitative imaging phenotypes.Quantitative imaging phenotypes, as defined by texture analysis, correlated with expression of specific markers of hypoxia, regardless of conventional imaging features.
Sadot, E; Simpson, AL; Do, RKG; Gonen, M; Shia, J; Allen, PJ; D'Angelica, MI; DeMatteo, RP; Kingham, TP; Jarnagin, WR
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