Chemotherapy-induced splenic volume increase is independently associated with major complications after hepatic resection for metastatic colorectal cancer.
BACKGROUND: In patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM), chemotherapy-induced hepatic injury is associated with increased splenic volume, thrombocytopenia, and decreased long-term survival. The current study investigates the relationship between change in splenic volume after preoperative chemotherapy and development of postoperative complications. STUDY DESIGN: The study group consisted of 80 patients who underwent resection of CRCLM; half received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months before resection (n = 40) and the other half did not (n = 40). The study group was compared with two control groups: a normal group composed of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for benign disease (n = 40) and a group of untreated, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (n = 40). Splenic volume was measured by CT/MRI volumetry. In the study group, the nontumoral liver was graded for steatosis and sinusoidal injury; operative and outcomes characteristics were also analyzed. RESULTS: Before chemotherapy, CRCLM patients had normalized spleen volumes of 3.2 ± 1.1 mL/kg, significantly higher than normal (2.5 ± 0.8 mL/kg; p < 0.001) and nonmetastatic CRC (2.6 ± 1.3 mL/kg; p < 0.05) patients, with higher splenic volume after 6 months of chemotherapy (4.2 ± 1.7 mL/kg; p < 0.01). After chemotherapy, splenic volume increase was associated with any perioperative complication (p < 0.01) and major complications (p < 0.05). Patients with ≥39% splenic volume increase (maximal chi-square test) were significantly more likely to have major complications (p < 0.01). Spleen volume changes were not correlated with change in platelet count (R(2) = 0.03; p = 0.301). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CRCLM, the presence of liver metastases and chemotherapy are associated with higher splenic volume. Percent splenic volume increase after 6 months of chemotherapy can aid preoperative risk stratification, as it was an independent predictor of major postoperative complications.
Simpson, AL; Leal, JN; Pugalenthi, A; Allen, PJ; DeMatteo, RP; Fong, Y; Gönen, M; Jarnagin, WR; Kingham, TP; Miga, MI; Shia, J; Weiser, MR; D'Angelica, MI
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