Photochemistry and photophysics of Cr(III) macrocyclic complexes.
The phosphorescence and photochemical behavior of the macrocyclic complexes (1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadecane)chromium(III) (Cr(-aneN(6))(3+); 1) and (4,4',4''-ethylidynetris(3-azabutan-1-amine)) chromium(III) (Cr(sen)(3+); 2) have been compared to each other and to the complex Cr(en)(3)(3+). For both macrocyclic complexes, phosphorescence from room temperature aqueous solutions is too weak to be observed, contrasting with Cr(en)(3)(3+), though both had somewhat longer 77 K lifetimes than Cr(en)(3)(3+). Phosphorescence lifetimes for these macrocyclics decreased with increasing temperature much faster than for Cr(en)(3)(3+) and a conventional extrapolation based on a fit of reciprocal lifetimes (corrected for the low-temperature contribution) to the Arrhenius equation gave estimated room temperature phosphorescence lifetimes of a few nanoseconds, consistent with the failure to observe room temperature emission. Fitting of the nonlinearity of the data seen in these plots suggested that two high-temperature processes were occurring with estimated activation parameters (E in kJ mol(-1) and A in s(-1)) for Cr(-aneN(6))(3+): E(1) = 40, A(1) = 1 x 10(16); E(2) = 24, A(2) = 1 x 10(14): Cr(sen)(3+); E(1) = 45, A(1) = 2 x 10(15); E(2) = 29, A(2) = 7 x 10(11). Cr(-aneN(6))(3+) was photochemically inert on irradiation. On irradiation into the lowest quartet ligand field absorption band, Cr(sen)(3+) photolyzes with a quantum yield of 0.098 +/- 0.001 at room temperature. Laser flash photolysis with conductivity detection showed that this photoreaction occurred faster than protonation of the liberated amine ligand at all practical proton concentrations. The quantum yield for irradiation directly into the doublet absorption band of Cr(sen)(3+) was 0.077 +/- 0.003. Photoaquation of Delta-Cr(sen)(3+) led to loss of optical activity and product analysis by capillary electrophoresis showed that both racemic and Delta-Cr(sen)(3+) photoaquate to a single main product, trans-Cr(sen-NH)(H(2)O)(4+). The product stereochemistry is shown to be consistent with predictions based on the angular overlap model for Cr(III) photochemistry, recognizing the additional constraints imposed by the ligand. The abnormally short room temperature solution lifetime of the doublet state is a result of a radiation-less process that competes with other processes depleting the doublet state. However, this doublet-state deactivation process does not lead to photoaquation but competes with BISC and photoaquation via the quartet state, resulting in an unprecedented reduction in photoaquation quantum yield on direct irradiation into the doublet state.
Irwin, G; Kirk, AD; Mackay, I; Nera, J
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