Human skin chymotrypsin-like proteinase chymase. Subcellular localization to mast cell granules and interaction with heparin and other glycosaminoglycans.
The subcellular localization of human skin chymase to mast cell granules was established by immunoelectron microscopy, and binding of chymase to the area of the dermo-epidermal junction, a basement membrane, was demonstrated immunocytochemically in cryosections incubated with purified proteinase prior to immunolabeling. Because heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans are major constituents of mast cell granules and basement membranes, respectively, the ability of chymase to bind to glycosaminoglycans (GAG) was investigated. Among a variety of GAGs, only binding of chymase to heparin and heparan sulfate appears physiologically significant. Binding was ionic strength-dependent, involved amino groups on the proteinase, and correlated with increasing GAG sulfate content, indicating a predominantly electrostatic association. Interaction with heparin was observed in solutions containing up to 0.5 M NaCl, and interaction with heparan sulfate was observed in solutions containing up to 0.3 M NaCl. Binding of heparin did not detectably affect catalysis of peptide substrates, but may reduce accessibility of proteinase to protein substrates. Measurements among a series of serine class proteinases indicated that heparin binding was a more common property of mast cell proteinases than proteinases stored in other secretory granules. Binding of chymase to heparin is likely to have a storage as well as a structural role within the mast cell granule, whereas binding of chymase to heparan sulfate may have physiological significance after degranulation.
Sayama, S; Iozzo, RV; Lazarus, GS; Schechter, NM
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