Reaction of human skin chymotrypsin-like proteinase chymase with plasma proteinase inhibitors.
The ability of plasma proteinase inhibitors to inactivate human chymase, a chymotrypsin-like proteinase stored within mast cell secretory granules, was investigated. Incubation with plasma resulted in over 80% inhibition of chymase hydrolytic activity for small substrates, suggesting that inhibitors other than alpha 2-macroglobulin were primarily responsible for chymase inactivation. Depletion of specific inhibitors from plasma by immunoadsorption using antisera against individual inhibitors established that alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1-AC) and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI) were responsible for the inactivation. Characterization of the reaction between chymase and each inhibitor demonstrated in both cases the presence of two concurrent reactions proceeding at fixed relative rates. One reaction, which led to inhibitor inactivation, was about 3.5 and 4.0-fold faster than the other, which led to chymase inactivation. This was demonstrated in linear titrations of proteinase activity which exhibited endpoint stoichiometries of 4.5 (alpha 1-AC) and 5.0 (alpha 1-PI) instead of unity, and SDS gels of reaction products which exhibited a banding pattern indicative of both an SDS-stable proteinase-inhibitor complex and two lower Mr inhibitor degradation products which appear to have formed by hydrolysis within the reactive loop of each inhibitor. At inhibitor concentrations approaching those in plasma where inhibitor to chymase concentration ratios were in far excess of 4.5 and 5.0, the rate of chymase inactivation by both serpin inhibitors appeared to follow pseudo-first order kinetics. The "apparent" second order rate constants of inactivation determined from these data were about 3000-fold lower than the rate constants reported for human neutrophil cathepsin G and elastase with alpha 1-AC and alpha 1-PI, respectively. This suggests that chymase would be inhibited about 650-fold more slowly than these proteinases when released into plasma. These studies demonstrate that although chymase is inactivated by serpin inhibitors of plasma, both inhibitors are better substrates for the proteinase than they are inhibitors. This finding along with the slow rates of inactivation indicates that regulation of human chymase activity may not be a primary function of plasma.
Schechter, NM; Sprows, JL; Schoenberger, OL; Lazarus, GS; Cooperman, BS; Rubin, H
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