Treatment of superficial carcinoma of the bladder
The assessment and optimum management for carcinoma of the bladder which fails to invade the muscle is in dispute. Multiple previous investigators have pooled the results of stage 0 and stage A disease within the same stratification. Recent review of the results would indicate that stage 0 malignancy, those which have not penetrated the lamina propria, have a prognosis considerably different from malignancy which does penetrate the lamina propria. Multiple treatment modalities ranging from open cystotomy and electroresection through external beam radiation, intravesical chemotherapy, mucosal stripping, local heat or pressure, and immunotherapy have been utilized in the management of this disease process. This manuscript reviews the current status of these treatments in the management of noninvasive carcinoma of the bladder. © 1986 Springer-Verlag.
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