Reference data on thickness and mechanics of tissue layers and anthropometry of musculoskeletal extremities.
Musculoskeletal extremities exhibit a multi-layer tissue structure that is composed of skin, fat, and muscle. Body composition and anthropometric measurements have been used to assess health status and build anatomically accurate biomechanical models of the limbs. However, comprehensive datasets inclusive of regional tissue anatomy and response under mechanical manipulation are missing. The goal of this study was to acquire and disseminate anatomical and mechanical data collected on extremities of the general population. An ultrasound system, instrumented with a load transducer, was used for in vivo characterization of skin, fat, and muscle thicknesses in the extremities of 100 subjects at unloaded (minimal force) and loaded (through indentation) states. For each subject, the unloaded and loaded state provided anatomic tissue layer measures and tissue indentation response for 48 and 8 regions, respectively. A publicly available web-based system has been used for data management and dissemination. This comprehensive database will provide the foundation for comparative studies in regional musculoskeletal composition and improve visual and haptic realism for computational models of the limbs.
Neumann, EE; Owings, TM; Schimmoeller, T; Nagle, TF; Colbrunn, RW; Landis, B; Jelovsek, JE; Wong, M; Ku, JP; Erdemir, A
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