Impact and Implication of Fovea-Involving Intraretinal Hemorrhage after Acute Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion.
PURPOSE: To compare clinical outcomes in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) with (group A) or without (group B) fovea-involving intraretinal hemorrhage (IRH). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: All patients diagnosed with acute, treatment-naive BRVO seen by the Duke Eye Center Retina Service from January 1, 2009, through June 30, 2017 who had treatment-naive BRVO with disease onset <3 months before presentation, macular involvement, spectral-domain OCT and color fundus photographs at presentation, and >12 months offollow-up. METHODS: Retrospective study using a database of patients diagnosed with BRVO over an 8-year period. The presence of fovea-involving IRH was determined from baseline fundus photographs by human graders and confirmed with multimodal imaging. Presenting features, treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes were compared. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity (VA), cystoid macular edema (CME), central subfield thickness (CST), and number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections. RESULTS: Of 172 patients with BRVO, 33 (19.2%) presented with fovea-involving IRH. At presentation, group A had worse VA (0.54±0.06 logMAR [Snellen equivalent, 20/69] vs. 0.34±0.03 logMAR [Snellen equivalent, 20/44]; P = 0.001), greater CST (523.8±32 μm vs. 345.9±11.8 μm; P < 0.001), were more likely to have CME (93.9% vs. 48.2%; P < 0.001), and received more anti-VEGF injections in the first year (4.50±3.43 vs. 1.89±3.26; P < 0.001) than group B. Final VA was worse in group A (0.57±0.12 logMAR [Snellen equivalent, 20/74] vs. 0.35±0.05 logMAR [Snellen equivalent, 20/45]; P = 0.05). More patients in group A had loss of >2 lines of VA (36.4% vs. 18.7%; P = 0.04) or >3 lines (27.3% vs. 10.8%; P = 0.05) at final follow-up. Group A was more likely to have CME (63.6% vs. 27.3%; P < 0.001) at final follow-up with greater treatment burden, yet experienced a greater decrease in CST (-197.8±45.3 μm vs. -51.7±14.7 μm; P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Acute BRVO presenting with fovea-involving IRH is associated with worse presenting features, greater treatment burden, and worse clinical outcomes despite current therapeutic interventions.
Powers, JH; Thomas, AS; Mir, TA; Kim, JS; Birnbaum, FA; Yoon, SP; Khan, K; Gomez-Caraballo, M; Fekrat, S
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