Molecular markers in bladder cancer.
PURPOSE: Use of molecular markers in urine, tissue or blood offers potential opportunities to improve understanding of bladder cancer biology which may help identify disease earlier, risk stratify patients, improve prediction of outcomes or help target therapy. METHODS: A review of the published literature was performed, without restriction of time. RESULTS: Despite the fast-growing literature about the topic and the approval of several urinary biomarkers for use in clinical practice, they have not reached the level of evidence for widespread utilization. Biomarkers could be used in different clinical scenarios, mainly to overcome the limitations of current diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic tools. They have been evaluated to detect bladder cancer in asymptomatic populations or those with hematuria and in surveillance of disease as adjuncts to cystoscopy. There is also a potential role as prognosticators of disease recurrence, progression and survival both in patients with non-invasive cancers and in those with advanced disease. Finally, they promise to be helpful in predicting the response to local and/or systemic chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: To date, due to the lack of high-quality prospective trials, the level of evidence provided by the current literature remains low and, therefore, the potential of biomarkers exceeds utilization in clinical practice.
Soria, F; Krabbe, L-M; Todenhöfer, T; Dobruch, J; Mitra, AP; Inman, BA; Gust, KM; Lotan, Y; Shariat, SF
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