Predictive factors for applicability and success with endoscopic treatment of upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
PURPOSE: We report on endoscopic treatment outcomes for upper tract urothelial carcinoma and identify predictive factors for success. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 61 renal units were referred for endoscopic treatment of an upper tract tumor, 69% of which did not have a traditional indication for nephron sparing approaches. Tumor pathology and operative findings were assessed retrospectively for treatment outcomes and influential factors. RESULTS: Initial ureteroscopic inspection was undertaken in 53 renal units with resection attempted in 18 (34%) resulting in an 89% success rate with 16 treated. A percutaneous approach in 19 renal units (11 after ureteroscopy) was 100% successful in achieving tumor-free status, for a total of 35 renal units successfully treated endoscopically. Surveillance then began on 27 renal units with a recurrence rate of 88% and mean time to recurrence of 5.8 months (range 2 to 20). Of patients undergoing surveillance (31% of whom had high grade disease), 54% remain or have died of unrelated disease, during a mean followup of 21.0 months (range 3 to 48). Higher tumor grade, larger size, renal pelvis location (all p <0.01) and multifocality (p = 0.05) significantly correlated with decreased recurrence-free survival, but did not predict failure of local control by endoscopic surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Although endoscopic techniques can render most patients tumor-free, there is a high associated recurrence rate and many need repeat procedures. Recurrence-free survival is greater in patients with low grade, solitary or less bulky disease. However, rigorous surveillance after endoscopic resection can lead to success even in patients with high grade, multifocal or large volume disease, resulting in preservation of renal units.
Suh, RS; Faerber, GJ; Wolf, JS
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