Intrathecal sufentanil for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy provides earlier discharge of the outpatient than intrathecal lidocaine.
Many anesthetic techniques are currently used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). This randomized, prospective, double-blind study was designed to examine postoperative recovery with two anesthetic techniques for unilateral ESWL; i.e., intrathecal sufentanil versus intrathecal 5% lidocaine. The incidence of adverse effects was also assessed. Twenty-two ASA physical status I-III patients, 18-70 yr of age who were scheduled for unilateral ESWL under spinal anesthesia were studied. Patients were randomized to receive either intrathecal sufentanil 20 microg + saline (n = 11) or intrathecal 5% lidocaine (n = 11) based on their height. Both patients and observers were blinded to the treatment groups. Patients were assessed for intraoperative and postoperative pain via a 10-cm verbal analog pain scale (VAPS) (0 = no pain, 10 = extreme pain). Stone sizes, number of shock waves, and voltages were also compared. The recovery profile-time to ambulate, void, oral intake, and home discharge-was documented. Antiemetic requirements in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), pruritus, and sedation were also recorded. This study showed no differences in VAPS between groups at any time in the perioperative period. Patients who received intrathecal sufentanil ambulated (79 +/- 16 vs 146 +/- 57 min mean +/- SD; P < 0.05), voided (80 +/- 18 vs 152 +/- 54 min, P < 0.05), and were discharged home (98 +/- 17 vs 166 +/- 50 min, P < 0.005) significantly sooner than the patients who received intrathecal lidocaine. Although 27% (3 of 11) of the patients who received sufentanil reported pruritus, respiratory depression was not found. There were no differences in PONV between the two groups. Intrathecal sufentanil provided an enhanced recovery profile with significantly earlier home discharge when compared with intrathecal lidocaine. In conclusion, intrathecal sufentanil is a safe and effective method of anesthesia for outpatient unilateral ESWL.
Lau, WC; Green, CR; Faerber, GJ; Tait, AR; Golembiewski, JA
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