Apoptotic cell-based therapies for promoting transplantation tolerance.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article is aimed to provide readers with an updated review on the applicability, efficacy, and challenges of employing donor apoptotic cell-based therapies to promote transplantation tolerance in various experimental and clinical settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, donor apoptotic cell-based therapies have been employed in various models of cell (including pancreatic islets and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells) and solid organ (heart and kidney) transplantation to promote donor-specific tolerance. Published data, thus far, have revealed a high potential of this approach in inducing robust transplantation tolerance. Recent clinical trials have also underscored the safety and potential efficacy of this approach in alleviating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Host factors including prior allo-sensitization and opportunistic infections pose major obstacles in establishing transplantation tolerance employing this strategy. However, emerging data provide strategies for overcoming such obstacles in these clinically relevant settings. SUMMARY: Donor apoptotic cell therapy is an emerging strategy in promoting transplantation tolerance, with recent data emphasizing its efficacy and applicability for transplantation tolerance in the clinic.
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