Working Toward an Improved Understanding of Chronic Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 4.
Chronic diseases of the heart and of the kidneys commonly coexist in individuals. Certainly combined and persistent heart and kidney failure can arise from a common pathologic insult, for example, as a consequence of poorly controlled hypertension or of severe diffuse arterial disease. However, strong evidence is emerging to suggest that cross talk exists between the heart and the kidney. Independent processes are set in motion when kidney function is chronically diminished, and these processes can have distinct adverse effects on the heart. The complex chronic heart condition that results from chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been termed cardiorenal syndrome type 4. This review will include an updated description of the cardiac morphology in patients who have CKD, an overview of the most likely CKD-sourced culprits for these cardiac changes, and the potential therapeutic strategies to limit cardiac complications in patients who have CKD.
Edmonston, D; Morris, JD; Middleton, JP
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)