Surgical hypoparathyroidism is the most common cause of hypoparathyroidism and the result of intentional or inadvertent extirpation, trauma, or devascularization of the parathyroid glands. Surgical hypoparathyroidism may present as a medical emergency. Pediatric patients, those with Graves disease, and those undergoing extensive neck dissections or reoperative neck surgery are at particular risk for this complication. Extensive surgical expertise, immediate or delayed autotransplantation, and prophylactic and postoperative calcium/vitamin D supplementation in select patients are associated with a reduction in the risk of surgical hypoparathyroidism. Intraoperative parathyroid imaging is among novel strategies being investigated to mitigate surgical hypoparathyroidism in the intraoperative setting.
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