Educational Mobility Across Generations and Depressive Symptoms Over 10 Years Among US Latinos.
Few studies have collected intergenerational data to assess the association between educational mobility across multiple generations and offspring depression. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998-2008), we assessed the influence of intergenerational education on depressive symptoms over 10 years among 1,786 Latino individuals (mean age = 70.6 years). Educational mobility was classified as stable-low (low parental/low offspring education), upwardly mobile (low parental/high offspring education), stable-high (high parental/high offspring education), or downwardly mobile (high parental/low offspring education). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D); higher scores indicated more depressive symptoms. To quantify the association between educational mobility and CES-D scores over follow-up, we used generalized estimating equations to account for repeated CES-D measurements and adjusted for identified confounders. Within individuals, depressive symptoms remained relatively stable over follow-up. Compared with stable-low education, stable-high education and upward mobility were associated with significantly lower CES-D scores (β = -2.75 and -2.18, respectively). Downwardly mobile participants had slightly lower CES-D scores than stable-low participants (β = -0.77). Our results suggest that sustained, low educational attainment across generations may have adverse mental health consequences, and improved educational opportunities in underresourced communities may counteract the adverse influence of low parental education on Latino depression.
Ward, JB; Robinson, WR; Pence, BW; Maselko, J; Albrecht, SS; Haan, MN; Aiello, AE
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