Novel Transcriptional Mechanisms for Regulating Metabolism by Thyroid Hormone.
The thyroid hormone plays a key role in energy and nutrient metabolisms in many tissues and regulates the transcription of key genes in metabolic pathways. It has long been believed that thyroid hormones (THs) exerted their effects primarily by binding to nuclear TH receptors (THRs) that are associated with conserved thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) located on the promoters of target genes. However, recent transcriptome and ChIP-Seq studies have challenged this conventional view as discordance was observed between TH-responsive genes and THR binding to DNA. While THR association with other transcription factors bound to DNA, TH activation of THRs to mediate effects that do not involve DNA-binding, or TH binding to proteins other than THRs have been invoked as potential mechanisms to explain this discrepancy, it appears that additional novel mechanisms may enable TH to regulate the mRNA expression. These include activation of transcription factors by SIRT1 via metabolic actions by TH, the post-translational modification of THR, the THR co-regulation of transcription with other nuclear receptors and transcription factors, and the microRNA (miR) control of RNA transcript expression to encode proteins involved in the cellular metabolism. Together, these novel mechanisms enlarge and diversify the panoply of metabolic genes that can be regulated by TH.
Singh, BK; Sinha, RA; Yen, PM
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