Mitochondria, Oxytocin, and Vasopressin: Unfolding the Inflammatory Protein Response.
Neuroendocrine and immune signaling pathways are activated following insults such as stress, injury, and infection, in a systemic response aimed at restoring homeostasis. Mitochondrial metabolism and function have been implicated in the control of immune responses. Commonly studied along with mitochondrial function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely linked to cellular inflammatory responses. It is also accepted that cells experiencing mitochondrial or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induce response pathways in order to cope with protein-folding dysregulation, in homeostatic responses referred to as the unfolded protein responses (UPRs). Recent reports indicate that the UPRs may play an important role in immune responses. Notably, the homeostasis-regulating hormones oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) are also associated with the regulation of inflammatory responses and immune function. Intriguingly, OXT and AVP have been linked with ER unfolded protein responses (UPRER), and can impact ROS production and mitochondrial function. Here, we will review the evidence for interactions between these various factors and how these neuropeptides might influence mitochondrial processes.
Bordt, EA; Smith, CJ; Demarest, TG; Bilbo, SD; Kingsbury, MA
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