A general P300 brain-computer interface presentation paradigm based on performance guided constraints.
An electroencephalographic-based brain-computer interface (BCI) can provide a non-muscular method of communication. A general model for P300-based BCI stimulus presentations is introduced--the "m choose n" or C(m (number of flashes per sequence), n (number of flashes per item)) paradigm, which is a universal extension of the previously reported checkerboard paradigm (CBP). C(m,n) captures all possible (unconstrained) ways to flash target items, and then applies constraints to enhance ERP's produced by attended matrix items. We explore a C(36,5) instance of C(m,n) called the "five flash paradigm" (FFP) and compare its performance to the CBP. Eight subjects were tested in each paradigm, counter-balanced. Twelve minutes of calibration data were used as input to a stepwise linear discriminant analysis to derive classification coefficients used for online classification. Accuracy was consistently high for FFP (88%) and CBP (90%); information transfer rate was significantly higher for the FFP (63 bpm) than the CBP (48 bpm). The C(m,n) is a novel and effective general strategy for organizing stimulus groups. Appropriate choices for "m," "n," and specific constraints can improve presentation paradigms by adjusting the parameters in a subject specific manner. This may be especially important for people with neuromuscular disabilities.
Townsend, G; Shanahan, J; Ryan, DB; Sellers, EW
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