Cigarette Use Among Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders in the United States, 2002 to 2016: Trends Overall and by Race/Ethnicity.
BACKGROUND: Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) who smoke cigarettes experience greater health risks than those using either substance alone. Further, disparities exist in AUDs and smoking by race/ethnicity. Although smoking has declined in the general population, it is not known whether the smoking prevalence has changed over time for individuals with AUDs. The current study used representative U.S. data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette use from 2002 to 2016 by AUD status and severity overall and by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Data were drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual cross-sectional study of U.S. individuals, from 2002 to 2016 (total analytic sample n = 837,326). Cigarette smoking prevalence was calculated annually among those with and without past-year AUD and by AUD severity level (mild, moderate, severe AUD). Time trends in smoking prevalence by AUD status and severity were tested using logistic regression for the overall sample and significant interactions were subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic [NH] White, NH Black, Hispanic, NH Other). RESULTS: Cigarette use was persistently over twice as common among those with AUDs compared to without AUDs (2016: 37.84% vs. 16.29%). Cigarette use was also more common among those at each level of AUD severity criteria (2016: mild AUD 34.59%; moderate AUD 35.35%; severe AUD 52.23%). Approximately half of NH Black respondents with AUDs, and three-quarters of NH Black respondents with severe AUDs, reported smoking in 2016. The prevalence of smoking decreased significantly over time among respondents with and without AUDs; however, there were differences by race. There was no decline in smoking prevalence among NH Black respondents with AUDs over time in contrast to a significant decrease for every other racial/ethnic group with and without AUDs. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with AUDs may need additional resources and interventions to quit smoking, especially NH Black individuals.
Weinberger, AH; Pacek, LR; Giovenco, D; Galea, S; Zvolensky, MJ; Gbedemah, M; Goodwin, RD
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