Exercise as Adjunct Therapy in Cancer.
Data from observational studies indicate that both physical activity as well as exercise (ie, structured physical activity) is associated with reductions in the risk of recurrence and cancer mortality after a diagnosis of certain forms of cancer. Emerging evidence from preclinical studies indicates that physical activity/exercise paradigms regulate intratumoral vascular maturity and perfusion, hypoxia, and metabolism and augments the antitumor immune response. Such responses may, in turn, enhance response to standard anticancer treatments. For instance, exercise improves efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents, and there is rationale to believe that it will also improve radiotherapy response. This review overviews the current preclinical as well as clinical evidence supporting exercise modulation of therapeutic response and postulated biological mechanisms underpinning such effects. We also examine the implications for tumor response to radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy.
Ashcraft, KA; Warner, AB; Jones, LW; Dewhirst, MW
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