The case for thyroid disruption in early life stage exposures to thiram in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Thiram, a pesticide in the dithiocarbamate chemical family, is widely used to prevent fungal disease in seeds and crops. Its off-site movement to surface waters occurs and may place aquatic organisms at potential harm. Zebrafish embryos were used for investigation of acute (1 h) thiram exposure (0.001-10 µM) at various developmental stages. Survival decreased at 1 µM and 10 µM and hatching was delayed at 0.1 µM and 1 µM. Notochord curvatures were seen at 0.1 and 1 μM thiram when exposure was initiated at 2 and at 10 hpf. Similar notochord curvatures followed exposure to the known TPO inhibitor, methimazole (MMI). Changes were absent in embryos exposed at later stages, i.e., 12 hpf. In embryos exposed to 0.1 or 1 μM at 10 hpf, levels of the thyroid enzyme, Deiodinase 3, increased by 12 hpf. Thyroid peroxide (TPO), important in T4 synthesis, decreased by 48 hpf in embryos exposed to 1 µM at 10 hpf. Thiram toxicity was stage-dependent and early life stage exposure may be responsible for adverse effects seen later. These effects may be due to impacts on the thyroid via regulation of specific thyroid genes including TPO and Deiodinase 3.
Chen, X; Fang, M; Chernick, M; Wang, F; Yang, J; Yu, Y; Zheng, N; Teraoka, H; Nanba, S; Hiraga, T; Hinton, DE; Dong, W
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