Peak lung function during young adulthood and future long-term blood pressure variability: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Long-term blood pressure variability (BPV) is associated with cardiovascular events independent of mean blood pressure (BP); however, little is known about its predictors. METHODS: Using data from the CARDIA study, we investigated the association between peak lung-function and long-term BPV in 2917 individuals (mean age 24.8 years, 45.3% males, 58.6% whites) who were not taking antihypertensive medications. Lung-function was measured using forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1-s (FEV1) at years 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 and the maximum score attained was considered as peak lung-function. Variability independent of the mean (VIM) and coefficient of variation (CV) of BP were calculated to quantify BPV since achieving peak lung-function across 9 visits over 30 years. RESULTS: In a multivariate linear regression models, individuals in the 2nd (-0.64 mmHg; 95% CI: -1.06, -0.19), 3rd (-0.96; -1.47, -0.45), and 4th (-0.85: -1.53, -0.17) quartiles of FVC had lower VIM of systolic BP than the those in quartile 1 (p-trend = 0.005). CV of systolic BP was also lower by -0.58 (-0.98, -0.19), -0.92 (-1.42, -0.43), and -0.74 (-1.40, -0.08) percentage points, in the three progressively higher quartiles of FVC compared to quartile 1 (p-trend = 0.008). Similar findings were observed when the outcome was diastolic BPV. There was no association of FEV1 and FEV1-to-FVC ratio with BPV. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that smaller lung volume or restrictive lung disease during young adulthood, which result in lower peak FVC, may independently increase the risk of higher long-term BPV during middle adulthood.
Tedla, YG; Yano, Y; Thyagarajan, B; Kalhan, R; Viera, AJ; Rosenberg, S; Greenland, P; Carnethon, MR
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