Association of sleep onset of acute coronary syndrome with sleep apnea syndrome and abnormal diurnal variation of hemostasis and adipokine levels.
Our aim was to examine the pathophysiology of sleep onset of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); in particular, we focused on the association of sleep onset of ACS, sleep-apnea syndrome (SAS), and diurnal variation of hemostasis and adipokine levels. Seventy-four patients (mean 60.0 years; 84% men) with ACS were cross-sectionally examined. They were examined by circulatory levels of hemostasis [plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), D-dimer, soluble fibrin] and adipokines (adiponectin, visfatin) before and after sleep, and cardiorespiratory function. The severity of SAS was defined as mild to no SAS [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) <15/h, n = 30], moderate SAS (AHI 15-30/h, n = 26), and severe SAS (AHI >30/h, n = 18). Nineteen patients (26%) were diagnosed with sleep onset of ACS, and these patients had a greater extent of morning increase from the night-time levels of PAI-1 (median PAI-1 increase: +37.1 vs. +27.3 ng/ml; P = 0.01) and visfatin (median visfatin increase: +0.40 vs. +0.00 ng/ml; P = 0.08) than those who had daytime onset of ACS. Among patients who had sleep onset of ACS, 89% were diagnosed with moderate to severe SAS. According to the severity of SAS, the morning increase from the night-time levels of PAI-1 and visfatin became greater (median PAI-1 increase: +23.7 vs. +29.2 vs. +39.3 ng/ml; median visfatin increase: 0.00 vs. 0.00 vs. +0.45 ng/ml; both P < 0.05), and these differences remained unchanged even after adjustment for significant covariates (both P < 0.05). Patients who have sleep onset of ACS are likely to have high prevalence of SAS and abnormal diurnal variations of PAI-1 and visfatin levels.
Yano, Y; Ohmori, T; Shimada, K; Sakata, Y; Kario, K
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