Independent association of cognitive dysfunction with cardiac hypertrophy irrespective of 24-h or sleep blood pressure in older hypertensives.
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to assess whether cardiac hypertrophy is associated with cognitive function independently of office, 24-h, or sleep blood pressure (BP) levels in older hypertensive patients treated with antihypertensive medications. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 443 hypertensive patients aged over 60 years (mean age: 73.0 years; 41% men) who were ambulatory, lived independently, and were without clinically overt dementia. They underwent measurements of 24-h BP monitoring, echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and cognitive function (mini-mental state examination, MMSE). RESULTS: MMSE score was inversely associated with office, 24-h, awake, and sleep systolic BP (SBP) (each, P < 0.05). There was a close association between MMSE score and LVMI (ρ = -0.32; P < 0.001). Using multiple logistic regression analysis including numerous covariates (i.e., age, sex, obesity, current smoking, educational level, duration of antihypertensive medications, renal dysfunction, statin use, and previous history of cardiovascular disease), the odds ratio (OR) for the presence of cognitive dysfunction, defined as the lowest quartile of MMSE score (median MMSE score: 23 points; n = 115), was estimated; the presence of cardiac hypertrophy (LVMI ≥125 kg/m(2) in men and ≥110 kg/m(2) in women) as well as uncontrolled 24-h BP (mean 24-h SBP/diastolic BP (DBP) ≥130/80 mm Hg) or sleep BP (mean sleep SBP/DBP ≥120/70 mm Hg), but not uncontrolled office BP (mean office SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg), were independently associated with cognitive dysfunction (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Among older hypertensive patients with antihypertensive medications, those who had echocardiographically determined cardiac hypertrophy may be at high risk for cognitive dysfunction, irrespective of their office BP and 24-h BP levels.
Hayakawa, M; Yano, Y; Kuroki, K; Inoue, R; Nakanishi, C; Sagara, S; Koga, M; Kubo, H; Imakiire, S; Aoyagi, Z; Kitani, M; Kanemaru, K; Hidehito, S; Shimada, K; Kario, K
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