Immediate-access grafts provide comparable patency to standard grafts, with fewer reinterventions and catheter-related complications.
BACKGROUND: No independent comparisons, with midterm follow-up, of standard arteriovenous grafts (SAVGs) and immediate-access arteriovenous grafts (IAAVGs) exist. The goal of this study was to compare "real-world" performance of SAVGs and IAAVGs. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent placement of a hemodialysis graft between November 2014 and April 2016 were retrospectively identified from the electronic medical record and Vascular Quality Initiative database at two tertiary centers. Only primary graft placements were included for analysis. Patients were divided into two groups based on the type of graft implanted. Patients' comorbidities, graft configuration, operative characteristics, and follow-up were collected and analyzed with respect to primary and secondary patency. Additional outcomes included graft-related complications, time to first cannulation, time to tunneled catheter removal, catheter-related complications, and overall survival. Patency was determined from the time of the index procedure; χ2, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox regression analyses were used, with the P value set as significant at < .05. RESULTS: There were 210 grafts identified, 148 SAVGs and 62 IAAVGs. At baseline, the patients' characteristics were similar between groups, except for a greater prevalence of preoperative central venous occlusions in the IAAVG group (16.3% vs 6.8%; P < .04). Of the IAAVG group, 50 were Acuseal (W. L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz) and 12 were Flixene (Atrium Medical Corporation, Hudson, NH). Primary patency was similar at both 1 year (SAVG, 39.4%; IAAVG, 56.7%; P = .4) and 18 months (SAVG, 29.0%; IAAVG, 43.7%; P = .4). Secondary patency was similar at 1 year (SAVG, 50.7%; IAAVG, 52.1%; P = .73) and 18 months (SAVG, 42.3%; IAAVG, 46.3%; P = .73). Overall survival was 48% at 24 months. IAAVG patients required fewer overall additional procedures to maintain patency (mean number of procedures, 0.99 for SAVGs vs 0.61 for IAAVGs; P = .025). There was no difference in occurrence of steal syndrome (SAVG, 6.8%; IAAVG, 8.1%; P = .74) or graft infection (SAVG, 19.0%; IAAVG, 12.0%; P = .276). Seventy-five percent of all grafts were successfully cannulated, with shorter median time to first cannulation in the IAAVG group (6 days; interquartile range [IQR], 1-19 days) compared with the SAVG group (31 days; IQR, 26-47 days; P < .01). Of all pre-existing catheters, 65.75% were removed, with a shorter median time until catheter removal in the IAAVG cohort at 34 days (IQR, 22-50 days) vs 49 days (IQR, 39-67 days) in the SAVG group (P < .01). Catheter-related complications occurred less frequently in the IAAVG group (16.4% vs 2.9%; P < .045). CONCLUSIONS: IAAVGs allow earlier cannulation and tunneled catheter removal, thereby significantly decreasing catheter-related complications. Patency and infection rates were similar between SAVGs and IAAVGs, but fewer secondary procedures were performed in IAAVGs.
Wagner, JK; Dillavou, E; Nag, U; Ali, AA; Truong, S; Chaer, R; Hager, E; Yuo, T; Makaroun, M; Avgerinos, ED
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