Modifying aroylhydrazone prochelators for hydrolytic stability and improved cytoprotection against oxidative stress.
BSIH ((E)-N'-(2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzylidene)isonicotinohydrazide) is a prodrug version of the metal chelator SIH ((E)-N'-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)isonicotinohydrazide) in which a boronate group prevents metal chelation until reaction with hydrogen peroxide releases SIH, which is then available for sequestering iron(III) and inhibiting iron-catalyzed oxidative damage. While BSIH has shown promise for conditionally targeting iron sequestration in cells under oxidative stress, the yield of SIH is limited by the fact that BSIH exists in cell culture media as an equilibrium mixture with its hydrolysis products isoniazid and 2-formylphenyl boronic acid. In the current study, several BSIH analogs were evaluated for their hydrolytic stability, reaction outcomes with H2
, and prochelator-to-chelator conversion efficiency. Notably, the para-methoxy derivative (p-OMe)BSIH ((E)-N'-(5-methoxy-2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzylidene)isonicotinohydrazide) and the meta-, para-double substituted (MD)BSIH ((E)-N'-((6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)methylene)isonicotinohydrazide) showed 1.3- and 1.9-fold improved hydrolytic stability compared to BSIH, respectively, leading to a 22 and 50% increase in chelator released. Moreover, both prochelators were found to protect retinal pigment epithelial cells stressed with either H2
or paraquat insult.
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