Outcomes of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Patients Supported with a Left Ventricular Assist Device.
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of end-stage heart failure patients are supported with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation and must be maintained on consistent anticoagulation. These patients are experiencing prolonged survival and, in some, there is development of new biliary disease. However, safety and outcomes of this procedure in this unique patient group is not well reported. METHODS: This was a retrospective single-center review. All adult patients supported on an implanted, continuous flow LVAD from 2007 to 2016 were screened. Baseline characteristics, laboratory values, and operative details were collected through retrospective chart review and an institutional LVAD registry. RESULTS: Of the 798 patients screened, 5 (0.63%) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after LVAD implantation. In 4 patients (80%), the indication for surgery was symptomatic cholelithiasis and 1 patient (20%) had symptomatic acalculous cholecystitis. The average time from LVAD implantation to laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 254 ± 158 days. Average (corrected) preoperative international normalized ratio (INR) was 1.34 ± 0.30. Average preoperative hemoglobin was 11.28 ± 2.41 g/dL. All patients were on warfarin preoperatively and admitted before their operations for bridging with a heparin drip. Average postoperative change in hemoglobin was -1.16 ± 1.97 g/dL. The only major postoperative complication in this cohort was the development of an abdominal wall hematoma in 1 patient requiring operative evacuation. The average length of stay was 13.2 ± 4.6 days. Three patients (60%) took an average of 12 days to reach therapeutic INR. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomies can be performed safely in LVAD patients. Prolonged hospital stay is mainly owing to time required to reach a therapeutic INR postoperatively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II, prognostic.
Suresh, V; Bishawi, M; Bryner, B; Manning, M; Patel, C; Milano, C; Schroder, J; Sommer, C
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