Formative, multimethod case studies of learn to quit, an acceptance and commitment therapy smoking cessation app designed for people with serious mental illness.
Despite public health efforts, individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) still have very high rates of tobacco smoking. Innovative approaches to reach this population are needed. These series of case studies aimed to descriptively evaluate the usability, user experience (UX), and user engagement (UE) of Learn to Quit (LTQ), an acceptance and commitment therapy smoking cessation app designed for people with SMI, and to compare it with an app designed for the general population, NCI (National Cancer Institute) QuitGuide (QG). Both apps were combined with nicotine replacement therapy and technical coaching. Inspired by the ORBIT model, we implemented two case studies with crossover AB interventions, two B-phase training designs, and three bi-phasic AB single-case designs with Start-Point and Order randomization (A = QG, B = LTQ). Study outcomes were measured using the System Usability Scale, UX interviews, and background analytics. LTQ's usability levels were above the standard cutoff and on average higher than QG. UX outcomes suggested the relative benefits of LTQ's visual design, gamification and simple design structure. LTQ's overall UE was high; the app was opened for an average of 14 min per day (vs. QG: 7 min). However, users showed low levels of UE with each of the app's tracking feature. Measures of psychiatric functioning suggested the safety of LTQ in people with SMI. LTQ appears to be a usable and engaging smoking cessation app in people with SMI. An optimized version of LTQ should be tested in a Phase II study.
Vilardaga, R; Rizo, J; Ries, RK; Kientz, JA; Ziedonis, DM; Hernandez, K; McClernon, FJ
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