Grading of Complications After Cervical Deformity-corrective Surgery: Are Existing Classification Systems Applicable?


Journal Article

STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective review of prospective multicenter cervical deformity (CD) database. OBJECTIVE: Assess the impact of complication type and Clavien complication (Cc) grade on clinical outcomes of surgical CD patients BACKGROUND:: Validated for general surgery, the Clavien-Dindo complication classification system allows for broad comparison of postoperative complications; however, the applicability of this system is unclear in CD-specific populations. METHODS: Surgical CD patients above 18 years with baseline and postoperative clinical data were included. Primary outcomes were complication type (renal, infection, cardiac, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, neurological, musculoskeletal, implant-related, radiographic, operative, wound) and Cc grade (I, II, III, IV, V). Secondary outcomes were estimated blood loss (EBL), length of stay (LOS), reoperation, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) score. The univariate analysis assessed the impact of complication type and Cc grade on improvement markers and 1-year postoperative HRQL outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 153 patients (61±10 y, 61% female) underwent surgery for CD (8.1±4.6 levels fused; surgical approach included 48% posterior, 18% anterior, 34% combined). Overall, 63% of patients suffered at least 1 complication. Complication breakdown by type: renal (2.0%), infection (5.2%), cardiac (7.2%), pulmonary (3.9%), gastrointestinal (2.0%), neurological (26.1%), musculoskeletal (0.0%), implant-related (3.9%), radiographic (16.3%), operative (7.8%), and wound (5.2%). Of complication types, only operative complications were associated with increased EBL (P=0.004), whereas renal, cardiac, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, neurological, radiographic, and wound infections were associated with increased LOS (P<0.050). Patients were also assessed by Cc grade: I (28%), II (14.3%), III (16.3%), IV (6.5%), and V (0.7%). Grades I and V were associated with increased EBL (both P<0.050); Cc grade V was the only complication not associated with increased LOS (P=0.610). Increasing complication severity was correlated with increased risk of reoperation (r=0.512; P<0.001), but not inferior 1-year HRQL outcomes (all P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing complication severity, assessed by the Clavien-Dindo classification system, was not associated with increased EBL, inpatient LOS, or inferior 1-year postoperative HRQL outcomes. Only operative complications were associated with increased EBL. These results suggest a need for modification of the Clavien system to increase applicability and utility in CD-specific populations.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Bortz, CA; Passias, PG; Segreto, FA; Horn, SR; Lafage, R; Smith, JS; Line, BG; Mundis, GM; Kelly, MP; Park, P; Sciubba, DM; Hamilton, DK; Gum, JL; Burton, DC; Hart, RA; Schwab, FJ; Bess, S; Shaffrey, C; Klineberg, EO; International Spine Study Group,

Published Date

  • July 2019

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 32 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 263 - 268

PubMed ID

  • 30451785

Pubmed Central ID

  • 30451785

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2380-0194

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000748


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States