Renal Amyloidosis in Deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2: Successful Experience With Canakinumab.
Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a rare autoinflammatory disease that was firstly described in patients with early-onset strokes, livedo reticularis, and periodic fever resembling polyarteritis nodosa. In reported case series, researchers described highly variable manifestations, including autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, ichthyosiform rash, and arthritis, in patients with DADA2. A thirteen-year-old female patient who was born to consanguineous parents was admitted to our hospital with generalized edema and leg pain. A physical examination revealed splenomegaly and left knee arthritis. Nephrotic-range proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia were present, and a renal biopsy revealed amyloidosis. Despite the absence of periodic fever and livedo reticularis, our patient had suggestive features of DADA2, including low serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M levels, hepatosplenomegaly, and renal amyloidosis. We found a heterozygote Met694Val mutation in the Mediterranean fever gene and a novel homozygote Thr317Argfs*25 (c.950-950delCys) mutation in the cat eye chromosome region 1 gene. A functional analysis revealed absent plasma adenosine deaminase 2 activity. Canakinumab was administered because of unresponsive proteinuria despite 2 months of treatment with colchicine and methylprednisolone. Proteinuria improved after 7 doses of canakinumab. In conclusion, DADA2 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal amyloidosis, particularly in the absence of homozygote Mediterranean fever mutations. Although anti-tumor necrosis factor agents are widely offered in DADA2 treatment, we speculate that canakinumab may be an appropriate treatment of renal amyloidosis in DADA2.
Kisla Ekinci, RM; Balci, S; Bisgin, A; Hershfield, M; Atmis, B; Dogruel, D; Yilmaz, M
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